Soil dating

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Therefore, radiocarbon dating of SOM is necessary, but unfortunately not straightforward.Dating of fractions of SOM obtained by alkali-acid extraction is promising, but which fraction (humic acid or humin) renders the most accurate C ages of both fractions and related calibrated ages to soil depth for Andosols in northern Ecuador.Achieving a two micrometer approach is not usually possible unless bacteria can swim or float to each other through water.Yet as mentioned, the soil is often riddled with air and other obstacles. Fungi, it turns out, are the answer, according to a new study in by a team of German scientists.

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They began with two strains of bacteria that either glowed red (a parent strain containing a donor plasmid) or not at all (the recipient).

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Bacteria don’t mate the way most animals do, by combining genomes wholesale through a union of egg and sperm.

Instead, they may swap one or a handful of genes on small circles of DNA called plasmids through docking tunnels between bacteria (a process called conjugation).

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